Example 149: Romanesque tower, component

Saskia Ltd. Cultural Documentation

Work Record
Class [link]: • architecture  • Medieval art
*Work Type [link]: • campanile  • tower
*Title/Name: Leaning Tower of Pisa Title Type: preferred
*Title/Name: Campanile Title Type: alternate
*Title/Name: Torre Pendente Title Type: alternate
*Creator Display: architect and engineer: begun by Bonanno Pisano (Italian, active late 12th century) or Gherardo di Gherardo (Italian, active late 12th century); continued by Giovanni Pisano (Italian, born ca. 1240, died before 1320) and Giovanni di Simone (Italian, active ca. 1260-ca. 1286); finished by Tommaso Pisano (Italian, died after 1372)
*Role [link]: architect  [link]: Bonanno Pisano
*Role [link]: architect  [link]: Gherardo di Gherardo
*Role [link]: architect  [link]: Giovanni Pisano
*Role [link]: architect  [link]: Giovanni di Simone
*Role [link]: architect  [link]: Tommaso Pisano
*Creation Date Display:  tower was begun in 1173 and completed in the 14th century
[controlled]: Earliest: 1173 Latest: 1399
*Subjects [links]: • architecture  • religion and mythology  • bell tower
Culture [link]: Italian
Style: [link]: Romanesque
*Current Location [link]: Pisa (Tuscany, Italy)
*Measurements: 8 stories, 56 m (height) (185 feet), inclination is about 4.9 m (16 feet) off the perpendicular
[controlled] • Value: 56 Unit: m Type: height || Extent: stories Value: 8 Type: count
*Materials and Techniques: bearing masonry, cut stone construction, round plan, white marble inlaid on the exterior with colored marble
Material [links]:  • marble Technique [links]: • bearing walls  • dimension stone  • round plan  • inlaying
Description: Historian Giorgio Vasari reports that the tower was begun by Bonanno Pisano, but modern research indicates the plan may have been by Gherardo di Gherardo. The uneven settling of the campanile’s foundations during its construction caused the tower to lean. Work was continued by Giovanni Pisano and Giovanni di Simone in 1275, with the addition of another three floors in a direction that bent opposite to the inclination to compensate for the flaw; but the added weight caused the tower to lean even more. According to Vasari, Tommaso di Andrea Pisano completed the belfry between 1350 and 1372. Modern efforts are underway to prevent the further leaning and ultimate collapse of the tower.
Description Sources [links]: Touring Club Italiano: Toscana (1984). Page: 117 ff.
• Soprintendenza ai Beni Ambientali Architettonici Artistici e Storici per le provincie di Pisa Livorno Lucca Massa Carrara online (accessed 4 February 2004).
Related Work:
      Relationship Type [controlled]: part of
      [Link to related work]: Cathedral of Pisa (Piazza del Duomo, Pisa, Italy)

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