Work Record with Description [Figure 41]
|Class [link]||architecture • European art|
|*Work Type [link]||campanile|
Leaning Tower of Pisa | Title Type: preferred
Title: Campanile | Title Type: alternate
Title: Torre Pendente | Title Type: alternate
architect and engineer: begun by Bonanno Pisano (Italian, active late 12th century) or Gherardo di Gherardo
(Italian, active late 12th century); continued by Giovanni Pisano (Italian, born ca. 1240, died before 1320) and Giovanni di
Simone (Italian, active ca. 1260-ca. 1286); finished by Tommaso Pisano (Italian, died after 1372)
*Role [link]: architect | [link]: Bonanno Pisano || *Role [link]: architect | [link]: Gherardo di Gherardo || *Role [link]: architect
| [link]: Giovanni Pisano || *Role [link]: architect | [link]: Giovanni di Simone || *Role [link]: architect | [link]: Tommaso
tower was begun in 1173 and completed in the 14th century
[controlled]: Earliest: 1173; Latest: 1399
|*Subjects [links to authorities]||architecture • religion and mythology • bell tower|
|*Current Location [link]||Pisa (Tuscany, Italy)|
8 stories, 56 m (height) (185 feet), inclination is about 4.9 m (16 feet) off the perpendicular
[controlled]: Value: 56; Unit: m; Type: height | Extent: stories; Value: 8; Type: count
|*Materials and Techniques||
bearing masonry, cut stone construction, round plan, white marble inlaid on the exterior with
Material [link]: marble | Technique [link]: bearing walls • dimension stone • round plan • inlaying
Vasari reports that the tower was begun by Bonanno Pisano, but modern research indicates the plan may have
been by Gherardo di Gherardo. The uneven settling of the campanile's foundations during its construction caused the tower to
lean. The work was continued by Giovanni Pisano and Giovanni di Simone in 1275, with the addition of another three floors in
a direction that bent opposite to the inclination to compensate for the flaw; but the added weight caused the tower to lean
even more. According to Vasari, Tommaso di Andrea Pisano completed the belfry between 1350 and 1372. Modern efforts are
underway to prevent the further leaning and ultimate collapse of the tower.
|Description Sources [link]||
Touring Club Italiano: Toscana (1984); Page: 117 ff.
Soprintendenza ai Beni Ambientali Architettonici Artistici e Storici per le provincie di Pisa Livorno Lucca Massa Carrara
online http://www.ambientepi.arti.beniculturali.it/ (accessed February 4, 2005).
Relationship Type [controlled]: part of
[link to Related Work]: Cathedral of Pisa; cathedral; unknown Italian; 1063-1350; Piazza del Duomo (Siena, Italy)
Leaning Tower of Pisa, Pisa,
Italy © 2005 Patricia Harpring.
All rights reserved.